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~  Archaic Iron & Copper Smelters in America  ~

When Archaic Miners Built Ceramic Avenues

Ancient Ceramic Stones?

In archaic and neolithic times in Russia and the Americas, people made their own stones for retaining walls and buildings. The above and below images show these stone walls were made from a soupy conglomerate of powdered ores; ores formed into liquified silt for pour-in forms, similar to thick ceramic slip like, liquid cement; and poured into a frame or form, dried, hardened by the sun, heat or fire into stones: or even cut by heated laser beam rods. One such rod was found in the apex of Kufu's pyramid.

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Being used in a high-heat metal smelter would in itself, over time have caused ore layers within the stones to separate just as multitudinous crack-lines and chips form on old ceramic cooking pots from high heat. In time the stones eventually dry-up, all apart into chunks and sections and crumble back into sand, and when wet -- silt. Rock quarrys were also called Rock Crushers, because of methods used to make sand and silt for stones.

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The stones in this archaic wall were examined and studied by David and Susan Campbell in the early 2000s, and discovered to be walls of a very large archaic, burned-out stone smelter in Oklahoma in the mid-western United States. But unfortunately for historians, the people owning the land did not understand, appreciate, nor want them, or curious visitors there, and in spite of many protests had this archaic building, along with all its arcaic hand-built stone walls, bull-dozed under the ground.

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Another view of the outer stones, above left. And another view of the inner, incinerated ones on right. The archaic building had been built during the bronze-age when neolithic metal workers mined and forged metals of copper and tin alloys into bronze and brass objects for world trade, along with iron objects.

The Phoenicians and Achaeans -- ancient mariners, knew and used archaic cement for their harbor constructions, and large stone building blocks. Those same ancient Phoenicians -- Celts/Silts covered their deep circular marina's ("island-like harbors") walls with a copper-ore cement-plaster; whom Socrates, stated in what is now called Plato's Dialogues called "oricaulk". This metalic plaster was made with a compound mixture of powdered copper ore which has a greenish, aqua color like some swimming pools. Their hayday was prior to, and during the neolithic/bronze-age before, and after the major ice-age melt-downs. Much later they were known as Vikings. It is also interesting to note that the Baltic anomaly was covered with a thick iron-ore cement plaster which was also a build-up, which had run down from their archaic iron mining in archaic Sweden

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Both David and and his wife Susan investigated these stones before they were bull-dozed under. Susan Campbell took all the photographs and more which are not shown here. Their interesting first-hand account can be found at this Viewzone Link: Phoenician Stone Walls. More at A Fallen wall - Carpet Stone Floor. See more at More Strange Stones. And more at Close-up View. And Another Close-up.

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At left is David Campbell beside the fallen smelter wall. Above right is part of the collapsed smelter.

Turning Stone back into mud.

Then there's "Waffle Rock" below.. Man-made? Or Nature-made?

Man-made stones Man-made stones Man-made stones

"Waffle Rock", is a large petrified hunk of mud consisting of compressed sandstone and hematite encased in a framework. Was it once a form or mold for an ancient "stone" wall? The entire frame of petrified "mud" stones is a piece of a much larger surface area, and only a small remnant piece salvaged before the area was dammed-up and flooded to create Jennings Randolph Lake in Mineral County, West Virginia, USA. The chunk sits on the West Virginia Overlook.

The above petrified stone framework resembles the archaic smelter walls, which also resembles the Stellate Parenchysma cell-walls of the prehistoric giant trees and plants that once covered the earth. It's also possible the waffle frameworks were used as molds or forms for ready-made rock walls and why the ancient Etruscans/Basques (Phoenicians and Achaeans) used them for the fire-proof walls of their smelters, filling-in the open spaces with a conglomerate-like cement which hardened like underwater harbor cement. Also see: Ancient Trees.

Many different structures, and stone blocks were made from piles of sand and gravel by softening the pile with special liquified minerals and/or molten ores such as iron, even silver and gold, which, when melted and obsorbed into the sand or conglomerate became heaps of "play-dough-like clay-dough" with which to shape in molds or by hand into new rustic stone shapes. They were also softenned with electrified, iron lazer rods In archaic times, rock quarries were not always used to cut and dress stones, but to crush, and grind stone into sand, powder and conclomerates in order to create different sized stones and objects. Quarries, aka, "rock crushers". Even today, sands and conglomerates are often ground-up in quarries and hauled away, or mixed into a liquid and poured into various shapes into the moldsvlike bricks or cement blocks.

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